Alan Turing was a British mathematician, logician and cryptographer considered one of the fathers of computer science. Most famous is the Turing machine, an ideal machine that manipulates data contained on a tape of potentially infinite length according to a predefined set of well-defined rules. The Turing machine was introduced in 1936 to provide an answer to the Entscheidungsproblem ( decision problem ).
The Turing test is used to determine whether a machine is capable of thinking and was first illustrated by Turing in 1950 in the journal Mind in the article Computing machinery and intelligence.
Despite his genius Alan Turing died by suicide at the age of 41 by ingesting a cyanide apple--probably because of the persecution he suffered because of his homosexuality.
So far no man-made software has ever been able to pass this test......until now when two programmers Vladimir Veselov and Eugene Demchenko thanks to their software "Eugene Goostman" have succeeded in achieving an achievement of historic significance.
The judges of the Royal Society have "swapped" the software Eugene Goostman to be human in that it was capable of answering 30% of the questions they asked by actually winning the competition...even the software still turns out to be far from surpassing the requirements and limitations set by Turing.